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Classification 2024 Winter Edition

Worldwide source of medical classification resources


History of Medicine. Medical Miscellany

  • Classify history of a particular subject with the subject, e.g., History of surgery WO 11.

Organizations. Societies (General or not elsewhere classified) (Cutter from name of organization or society) (Table-G)
(Monographs and Serials)

Includes membership lists and administrative reports issued serially or separately. Classify directories in WZ 22. Classify other serials issued by societies in W1. For academies and institutes, see WZ 23.

Collected works by several authors

Collected works by individual authors

Addresses. Essays. Lectures

[This number not used]

Dictionaries. Encyclopedias
(Monographs and Serials)

Atlases. Pictorial works


Classify here works about education in the history of medicine. Cf. W 18 History of medical education.

Educational materials
(Monographs and Serials)

Classify here educational materials, e.g., outlines, questions and answers, programmed instruction, computer-assisted instruction, etc., regardless of format. Classify textbooks, regardless of format, by subject.

Directories (Table-G)
(Monographs and Serials)

General coverage (Not Table-G)
(Monographs and Serials)

Academies, institutes, etc (Cutter from name of institute)

Classify here histories of institutes devoted to medical history; classify other institutes with the field

Archives (General)

Classify here general works on medical archives; classify archives from a specific institute with the institute.

Collective museums, exhibitions, etc.

Individual museums, exhibitions, etc. (Cutter from name of museum) (Table-G)

[This number not used]

Classify handbooks on history of medicine in WZ 39


Handbooks. Resource guides
(Monographs and Serials)

General works

Ancient (before 500 C.E.)

Classify here all works regardless of locality or special group

Medieval (500-1450 C.E.)

Classify here all works regardless of locality or special group

Modern (1451 C.E.- ) (General)

Prefer classification by locality or special group

1451-1800 C.E.

1801 C.E.-

19th century

20th century

21st century

History (By locality) (Table-G)

History (Special groups, general or not elsewhere classified)

For groups not listed below, prefer classification by locality WZ 70 when applicable.

Specific groups, A-Z

Arabic and Islamic groups

Black people


Hispanic or Latino

American Indian or Alaska Native


Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander

Asian people

Sexual and gender minorities


Individual biography (Cutter from name of biographee)

Classify here biographies and bibliographies (including abstracts) of persons in the medical field, allied health sciences, preclinical sciences and other related fields. Cf. WZ 294 Modern criticism and bibliographies of early works. Include here works about two persons or a family, e.g., the Mayos.

Collective biography (General or not specified below)
(Monographs and Serials)

Classify here collective biographies in the fields of medicine, allied health, and the preclinical sciences by specialty. Classify collective biographies by period, locality, and ethnic or other special groups in WZ 121-150. Classify collective biographies of persons outside the field of medicine in the appropriate LC schedule.

By specialty, A-Z
(Monographs and Serials)

Classify collective biographies of military nurses in WZ 112.5.N8. Classify collective biographies of all other military health personnel in WZ 112.5.M4 regardless of specialty. Classify biography of individuals in WZ 100 regardless of specialty.

Allied health personnel











Midwives. Nurse midwives

Military health personnel

Naval personnel

Neurologists, neurosurgeons, etc.




Ophthalmologists, optometrists, etc.









Psychologists. Psychotherapists



Cf. WZ 112.5.M4 above.

Traditional medicine practitioners



Ancient (before 500 C.E.)
(Monographs and Serials)

Medieval (500-1450 C.E.)
(Monographs and Serials)

1451-1800 C.E.
(Monographs and Serials)

1801 C.E.-
(Monographs and Serials)

19th Century
(Monographs and Serials)

20th Century
(Monographs and Serials)

21st Century
(Monographs and Serials)

Collective biography (By locality) (Table-G)
(Monographs and Serials)

Prefer classification by specialty if applicable.

Collective biography (Special groups)
(Monographs and Serials)

Prefer classification by specialty if applicable.

Early Western manuscripts

 NLM no longer assigns this number to manuscripts as of 2002. Classify facsimiles or reproductions of manuscripts in WZ 290.

Other early manuscripts

NLM no longer assigns this number to manuscripts as of 2002. Classify facsimiles or reproductions of manuscripts in WZ 290.

Works published before 1801 (or later if considered Americana) are not classed by subject; instead, they are arranged alphabetically by author under classification number for period during which they were printed. These numbers are used only for original publications. Reproductions are classified in WZ 290.



16th Century

17th Century

18th Century

This number is used only for original publications. Reproductions are classified in WZ 290.


The closing dates given in the following table will be used to determine inclusion in this class. 

 North America 

          Canada, 1820 

          Caribbean, 1850 

          Central America, 1850 

          Mexico, 1850 

          United States (based on American Imprints Inventory) 

                  Alabama, 1840

                  Alaska, 1890 

                  Arizona, 1890 

                  Arkansas, 1870 

                  California, 1875 

                  Colorado, 1876

                  Connecticut, 1820

                  District of Columbia, 1820 

                  Delaware, 1820 

                  Florida, 1860 

                 Georgia, 1820 

                 Hawaii, 1860

                 Idaho, 1890

                 Illinois (except Chicago), 1850 

                           Chicago, 1871

                Indiana, 1850 

                Iowa, 1860

                Kansas, 1875

                Kentucky, 1830 

                Louisiana, 1820 

                Maine, 1820

                Maryland, 1820 

                Massachusetts, 1820

                Michigan, 1850

                Minnesota, 1865 

                Mississippi, 1840

                Missouri, 1850 

                Montana, 1890

                Nebraska, 1875

                Nevada, 1890 

                New Hampshire, 1820 

                New Jersey, 1820

                New Mexico, 1875

                New York (except N.Y. City, Brooklyn, and Hudson River towns), 1850 

                           Brooklyn, 1825 

                          Hudson River towns, e.g., Poughkeepsie, Hudson, Troy, Albany, 1830 

                          New York City, 1820

                North Carolina, 1820 

                North Dakota, 1890

                Ohio, 1840 

                Oklahoma, 1870 

                Oregon, 1875 

                Pennsylvania (except Philadelphia), 1830 

                          Philadelphia, 1820 

                Rhode Island, 1820 

                South Carolina, 1820 

                South Dakota, 1890 

                Tennessee, 1840 

                Texas, 1860 

                Utah, 1890 

               Vermont, 1820 

               Virginia, 1820 

               Washington, 1875 

               West Virginia, 1830 

              Wisconsin, 1850 

              Wyoming, 1890

 South America, 1850

Modern versions of early works

Classify here reprints, facsimiles, preservation microform, or translations of works originally published before 1801, and reprints of Americana originally published before the dates as listed at WZ 270. Do not include here 19th Century revised editions of 18th Century imprints. (Cf. 19th Century schedule for works and reprints of works published 1801-1913.)

Modern collections of early works
(Monographs and Serials)

Classify here collections (including those serially issued) which contain pre-1801 works of three or more authors. Classify works of only two authors in WZ 290.

Modern commentaries of early works and bibliographies of single titles (Cutter from work being criticized)

Classify here studies, commentaries, etc, of pre-1801 works including Americana unless they are largely the biography of one or two authors, in which case classify them in WZ 100. Classify in WZ 290 works that include the original text unless it is decidedly subordinate to the commentary. Classify here a bibliography of a single work. Cf. WZ 100 for bibliography of a single author's works.

Anecdotes. Humor. Light verse

Classify cartoons in WZ 336.

Surgery. Hospitalization


Folklore. Proverbs. Superstitions

For traditional medicine prefer classification by period, locality, or special group.

Quacks. Quackery

Classify here works the subject of which the author considers quackery. Works on special systems of therapeutics are classed in WB 890-962.

Biographical clinics (Diagnosis of diseases or psychological conditions of famous persons) (Cutter from name of biographee; collective, cutter from main entry)

Grave robbing. Resurrectionists

Medicine, as depicted in literature, drama, and music

Also include here works on medicine in both literature and art. Cf. WM 49  Literature as related to psychiatry. Cf. WZ 350 Literary works by health professionals.

Medicine, as depicted in the fine arts, film, and television

Classify works on medicine in both literature and art in WZ 330. Cf. WM 49 Art as related to psychiatry. Cf. WZ 350 Artistic works by health professionals.

[This number not used]

Emblems, insignia, etc.

Caricatures. Cartoons

Classify here caricatures and cartoons regardless of subject. Classify graphic novels in the form number for pictorial works in any NLM schedule.

Numismatics, philately, bookplates, etc.

Medical writing and publishing. Historiography

Classify works on specific subjects by subject.

Medical illustration (General)

Literary and artistic works by health professionals and associations

Cf. WZ 330-331 Medicine in literature and art.

Awards and prizes